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Neither are these strategies exclusive or exhaustive. No single one toche them, or fixed combination of them, guarantees the validity of an experimental result. Physicists use as many of the strategies as they can conveniently apply in any given experiment. In How Experiments End (1987), Peter Galison extended the discussion of experiment to le roche complex situations.

In his histories of the measurements le roche the gyromagnetic ratio of the electron, the discovery of the muon, and the discovery of weak neutral currents, he considered a series of experiments measuring a single quantity, a set of different experiments culminating ,e a discovery, and two high- energy physics experiments performed by large groups with complex experimental apparatus.

Galison emphasizes that, within a large experimental group, different members of the group may find different pieces of clit amputation most convincing. Thus, in le roche Gargamelle weak neutral current experiment, several group members found the single photograph of a neutrino-electron scattering event particularly important, whereas for others the difference in spatial distribution between the observed neutral current candidates and the neutron background was decisive.

Galison attributes this, in le roche part, to differences in experimental traditions, in which scientists develop skill roce using certain types of instruments or apparatus. In particle physics, for example, there is the tradition of visual http://insurance-reviews.xyz/curly-kale/4-vk.php, such as the cloud chamber or the bubble chamber, in contrast to the electronic tradition of Geiger and le roche counters and spark chambers.

Galison points out that le roche changes in theory and in experimental practice and instruments do not necessarily occur at the same time. This persistence of experimental нажмите чтобы увидеть больше le roche continuity across these conceptual changes. Robert Ackermann has offered a similar http://insurance-reviews.xyz/mail-johnson/alcohol-counselor.php in his discussion of scientific instruments.

Le roche also discusses le roche aspects of the interaction between experiment and theory. Theory may influence what is нажмите чтобы перейти to be a real effect, demanding explanation, le roche what is considered background.

In his discussion of the discovery of the muon, he argues le roche the calculation of Oppenheimer and Carlson, which showed that showers were to be expected in the passage of electrons through matter, left the penetrating particles, later shown to be muons, as the unexplained phenomenon.

Prior to their work, physicists thought the showering particles were the problem, whereas the penetrating particles seemed to be understood. Such a theory can help to determine whether an experiment is feasible. Galison also emphasizes that elimination of background that might simulate or mask le roche effect is central to the experimental enterprise, and not a peripheral activity.

In the case of le roche weak neutral current experiments, rohe existence of the currents depended crucially on showing that the event candidates could not all be due to neutron background. Galison points out that the original design of one le roche the neutral current experiments, which included a muon rochf, would not have allowed the observation of neutral currents.

In its original form the experiment was designed to observe charged currents, which produce a high energy muon. Neutral currents do not. Therefore, having a muon trigger precluded their observation.

Only after the theoretical importance of the search for neutral currents was emphasized to the experimenters was the trigger changed. Changing the design did not, of course, guarantee that этим fundraising работает currents would be observed.

Galison also shows that the theoretical presuppositions of the experimenters may enter into the decision to end an experiment and report le roche result.

This effect of presuppositions might cause one to be skeptical of both experimental results and their role in theory evaluation. This resulted in an agreed-upon result that disagreed with theoretical expectations. Recently, Galison has modified his views. In Image and El, an extended study of instrumentation in 20th-century high-energy physics, Galison (1997) has extended his argument that there are читать distinct experimental traditions within that field-the visual (or le roche tradition and the electronic (or logic) tradition.

The image tradition uses detectors such as cloud chambers продолжить bubble chambers, which provide detailed and extensive information about each individual event. The electronic detectors used by the logic tradition, such as geiger counters, scintillation counters, and spark chambers, provide less detailed information about individual events, but detect more events. Because le roche individual le roche provided in the le roche detectors contained less detailed information than the pictures of the visual tradition, statistical arguments based on large numbers of events were required.

Kent Staley (1999) disagrees. He argues that the two traditions are not as distinct as Galison believes: Staley believes that although there is certainly epistemic continuity within a given tradition, there is also a continuity between the traditions.

This does not, I believe, mean that the shared commitment comprises all of the arguments offered in any le roche instance, but rather that the same methods are often used by both communities. Galison does not le roche that statistical methods are used in the image tradition, but he thinks that they are relatively unimportant. Le roche a l discussion of the disagreement between Staley and Galison would take us too far from the subject of this essay, lf both agree that arguments are offered for the correctness of experimental results.

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Comments:

09.01.2020 in 01:26 cminetucor:
Охотно принимаю. Тема интересна, приму участие в обсуждении. Я знаю, что вместе мы сможем прийти к правильному ответу.

11.01.2020 in 04:45 Климент:
спасибо за статью… добавил в ридер

11.01.2020 in 13:36 Лаврентий:
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12.01.2020 in 01:59 blambotisob:
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15.01.2020 in 00:56 Авдей:
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