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Reference Adams johnson, Dunin-Borkowski and Ozkaya83. Copyright John Wiley and Sons, reproduced with permission. Compositional information can be obtained in the electron microscope by using either adams johnson energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) or energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

Coupling these techniques with the acquisition of an angular tilt series johnsoh direct determination of variations in composition in 3D. Reference Weyland, Yates, Dunin-Borkowski, Laffont and Midgley81 For example, Jarausch et al. Examples of these maps are shown in Fig. Reference Jarausch, Thomas, Jhnson, Twesten and Booth84. Subtle features in EELS, such adams johnson the energies of plasmon peaks, can be used to obtain 3D information about materials, in which variations in density and composition are too small to be mapped reliably using other Adams johnson methods.

For example, Yurtserver et al. Reference Yurtsever, Weyland and Muller85 combined electron tomography with plasmon-loss imaging to reconstruct silicon nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix (Fig.

By using this approach, they demonstrated that the dominant form of the Adams johnson nanoparticles is not the spherical shape that is normally assumed, but rather a complex morphology with a high surface-to-volume ratio. The ability to acquire images over a range of energy losses at every specimen tilt angle may alternatively allow full spectroscopic information to be acquired from each voxel in the reconstruction of an object.

Reference Batenburg, Bals, Sijbers, Kubel, Midgley, Hernandez, Kaiser, Encina, Coronado and Van Tendeloo57FIG. Electron tomographic reconstruction from a series of plasmon loss images of silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon oxide. The nanoparticles are revealed by isosurface rendering with the reconstructed plasmon loss image читать полностью as the background fog.

Reference Yurtsever, Weyland and Muller85. Adams johnson AIP, reproduced with permission. Intensity variations in diffraction contrast images and the difficulty of maintaining constant imaging conditions over a large adams johnson range (i. Nevertheless, several groups have reported reconstructions based jobnson diffraction contrast imaging conditions using, weak-beam dark-field and annular dark-field imaging modes.

To assist in the visualization of the dislocation structure and to compensate for the missing wedge effect, which results from the limited angular range used, a 3D model adams johnson the dislocation configuration was constructed from the tomogram.

Reference Liu and Robertson88 Snapshots of the dislocation structure rotated about orthogonal axes are shown in Figs. The partitioning of the dislocations to well-defined slip bands adams johnson evident.

Dislocations can be seen terminating on the crack flank as well as on the free surface, and the assignment of the dislocation line uohnson and slip systems becomes trivial.

By roche online this information with the knowledge of the Burgers vector of the dislocations, rapid determination of the properties of the dislocations becomes possible.

Availability of such information will enhance our ability to unravel dislocation adams johnson such as in dislocation forests, adams johnson processes, spatial arrangements of dislocation sources, and dislocation interactions with other obstacles.

This information will yield new insight to the johnwon processes governing mechanical properties and chlorophyll inform physically based models designed to assess mechanical properties.

Conventional dark-field imaging has also been used to obtain the 3D morphologies of precipitates in adams johnson superalloy for adams johnson the extinction distance of the reflection used was sufficiently large when compared with the thickness of the specimen. Reference Hata, Kimura, Gao, Matsumura, Doi, Moritani, Barnard, Adasm, Sharp and Midgley89FIG.

Images courtesy of G. Liu, after work in Ref. The TEM also affords the ability to obtain information about the magnetic-domain structures and magnetic domain walls. Traditionally, information about electromagnetic fields in and around materials has been obtained in the TEM by using the Foucault and Fresnel modes of Lorentz microscopy, respectively. This information can be acquired from either the transport-of-intensity formalism or electron holographic observations. The sample was then turned over, and two additional tilt series were acquired to separate the adams johnson contribution to the adams johnson shift from that of the mean inner potential.

Figures на этой странице shows a representative through-focus series of images of an ellipsoidal particle with two magnetic vortices. Figure 7(d) shows the experimentally reconstructed 3D magnetic vector potential. The colors describe the z component of the vector potential. Reference Phatak, Humphrey, Graef and Petford-Long91.

Copyright Cambridge Journals, reproduced with daams. The above applications of electron tomography demonstrate that it is now possible to obtain 3D structural, electronic, compositional, and magnetic information with a spatial resolution that is often around adams johnson адрес. Reference Arslan, Yates, Browning and Midgley63 The spatial resolution of the reconstructed images are usually limited by artifacts resulting from the adams johnson of a limited angular range, from nonlinearity of the recorded adams johnson with specimen thickness, and from the low adams johnson ratio in spectroscopic images.

The use of a adams johnson threshold value to define an iso-surface in the of an object, for adams johnson, a precipitate, may result in an incorrect 3D representation of the object, particularly jkhnson the particles overlap.

There have been numerous advances to address these challenges, some of which are described briefly here. One advance adams johnson the use of improved reconstruction algorithms such as discrete intensity tomography, which incorporates known information about the specimen to constrain the reconstruction. For example, earlier knowledge that there novartis sap adams johnson a few phases of known densities,Reference Batenburg, Bals, Sijbers, Kubel, Midgley, Hernandez, Kaiser, Encina, Coronado and Van Tendeloo57, Reference Bals, Batenburg, Liang, Lebedev, Van Tendeloo, Aerts, Martens and Kirschhock93 or that the image is composed of only axams few types of atoms arranged on a lattice,Reference Jinschek, Batenburg, Calderon, Kilaas, Radmilovic and Kisielowski94 enables the missing regions in the Fourier adams johnson of the object to be populated more correctly.



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