Journal of environmental chemical engineering

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Most injuries are the consequence of acute trauma during sports. Adolescents are most vulnerable to these injuries due to the incompletion of endochondral ossification and the existence of their cartilaginous epiphyseal plates. As such, it is important to have a basic anatomical knowledge regarding the bones of the foot, including their articulations and sites of attachment.

The tarsus consists of 7 bones which make the posterior aspect of the foot: talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular and three cuneiforms. The tarsal bones can be divided into journal of environmental chemical engineering hindfoot (talus and calcaneus) and midfoot (cuboid and cuneiforms). The navicular is the intermediate bone between these two groups. Talus (Latin for ankle) talus is the most superior bone of the tarsus and rests on top of the calcaneus.

Three areas of articulation form the ankle joint: Anteriorly the talus articulates with the navicular bone. Medially the talus articulates with the intermediate bone of the talus.

The talus has a body, head and neck. The superior surface, known as the trochlea, has the two malleoli attached which help with the stability of the joint. The trochlea is wider anteriorly, leading to a difference in stability depending on joint position. Dorsiflexion of the ХА, roche maps все stretches the ligaments resulting in joint stability.

Plantarflexion narrows the trochlea width resulting in decreased stability. The calcaneus is often referred to as the heel bone and is the largest and strongest bone жмите сюда the foot. The weight of the body passes through the tibia, into the talus and then to the calcaneus. The sustentaculum tali is a bony prominence on the medial aspect of the calcaneus нажмите чтобы перейти supports the medial journal of environmental chemical engineering of the talus bone.

The superior aspect of the calcaneus has three articular surfaces for articulation with the talus. The anterior surface articulates with the cuboid. The posterior aspect of the calcaneus has a large weight-bearing region called the calcaneal tubercle.

A hard fall on the heel (e. Diagnosis is based on symptoms (pain, bruising, difficulty walking) and then can be confirmed by X-ray or CT.

It is the most lateral bone in distal row of tarsal bones. Anterior to the cuboid tuberosity, on the lateral and inferior surfaces of the bone is a groove journal of environmental chemical engineering provides passage for a muscle tendon. The navicular нажмите для продолжения journal of environmental chemical engineering between the head of the talus posteriorly and the three cuneiforms anteriorly.

The navicular bone is on the medial aspect of the foot and articulates with the talus proximally, the three читать distally and the cuboid laterally. The cuneiform bones are wedge-shaped.

They are named medial, intermediate and lateral based on their relative position. Each cuneiform has a narrow inferior surface and a broad superior surface resulting in the transverse curvature of the foot. Journal of environmental chemical engineering cuneiform articulates with the navicular posteriorly and their respective metatarsal anteriorly. The anterior portion of the foot is formed by journal of environmental chemical engineering 5 metatarsal bones which are numbered 1-5 starting from the medial aspect of the foot.

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Comments:

08.02.2020 in 14:42 Софья:
Спасибо за инфу! Интересно!

14.02.2020 in 01:05 Дарья:
Хорошо! Все бы так писали :)