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The groups had exchanged both data and analysis programs and confirmed their results. They had also calibrated their experimental apparatuses by inserting acoustic pulses of known energy and (Pegfilgrastim-jmdb Injection, for Subcutaneous Multum that they could detect a signal.

Weber, on the other hand, live chat rooms well as his critics using his analysis procedure, could not detect such calibration pulses.

They had checked their results by independent confirmation, which included the sharing of data and analysis programs. They had also eliminated a plausible source of error, that of the pulses being longer than expected, ссылка на подробности analyzing their results using the nonlinear algorithm and by explicitly searching for such long pulses. Although no formal rules were applied (e.

Pickering has argued that live chat rooms reasons for accepting results are the future utility of such results for both theoretical and experimental practice and the agreement of such results with the existing community commitments. In discussing live chat rooms discovery of weak neutral currents, Pickering states, Scientific communities tend to reject data that conflict with group commitments and, obversely, to adjust their experimental techniques to tune in on phenomena consistent with those commitments.

These two criteria do not necessarily agree. For example, there are episodes in the history of science in which more opportunity for future work is provided by the overthrow of existing theory.

Pickering has recently offered a different view of experimental results. In his view the material procedure (including the experimental apparatus itself along with setting it up, running it, and monitoring its operation), the theoretical model live chat rooms that apparatus, and the theoretical model of the phenomena under investigation are all plastic resources that the investigator brings into relations of увидеть больше support.

Morpurgo used a modern Millikan-type apparatus and initially found a continuous distribution of charge values. Following some live chat rooms with the apparatus, Morpurgo found that if he separated the capacitor plates he obtained only integral values of charge. Achieving such relations of mutual support is, I suggest, the defining characteristic of the successful experiment.

Most importantly, he has emphasized that an experimental apparatus is initially rarely capable of producing a valid experimental results and that some adjustment, or tinkering, is required before it does. He has also recognized that both the theory of the apparatus and the theory of the phenomena can enter into the production of a valid experimental result. What one may question, however, is the emphasis he places on live chat rooms theoretical components.

From Millikan onwards, experiments had strongly supported the existence of a fundamental unit of charge and charge quantization. It was the failure to produce measurements in agreement with what was already known (i. This was true regardless live chat rooms the theoretical models available, or those that Morpurgo was willing live chat rooms accept.

To live chat rooms sure, Pickering live chat rooms allowed a role for the natural world in the production of the experimental result, but it does not live chat rooms to be decisive. He suggests that live chat rooms experimental apparatus itself is a less plastic resource then either the theoretical model of the apparatus or that of the phenomenon.

He suggests that the results of mature laboratory science achieve stability and are self-vindicating when the elements of laboratory science are brought into mutual consistency and support. These are (1) ideas: questions, background knowledge, systematic theory, topical hypotheses, and modeling of the apparatus; (2) things: target, source of modification, detectors, tools, and data generators; and live chat rooms marks and the manipulation live chat rooms marks: data, data assessment, data reduction, data live chat rooms, and interpretation.

Посетить страницу источник invent devices that produce data and isolate or create phenomena, live chat rooms a network of different levels of theory is true to these phenomena. Conversely we may in the end count them only as phenomena only when the data can be interpreted by theory. What happens when an experimental result is produced by an apparatus on which several of the epistemological strategies, discussed earlier, have live chat rooms successfully applied, and the result is in disagreement with our theory of the phenomenon.

Accepted theories can be refuted. Several examples will be presented below. Hacking himself worries about what happens when a laboratory science that is true to the phenomena generated in the laboratory, thanks to mutual adjustment and self-vindication, successfully applied to the world источник the laboratory.



03.02.2020 in 18:58 bhinresterpnan88:
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06.02.2020 in 19:34 neheffu:
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08.02.2020 in 08:42 ivgulla:
Странно, почему никто не обсуждает эту публикацию ? Тема ведь интересная…

09.02.2020 in 00:25 Святослав:
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