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The reproductive number of coronavirus provides an estimate of привожу ссылку possible extent of the transmission. This study aims to provide a summary reproductive number of coronavirus based on available global level evidence. A total of three databases were searched on Перейти на страницу 15, 2020: PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct.

The searches were conducted using a pre-specified search strategy to record studies reported the reproductive number of coronavirus from its inception in December 2019.

It includes keywords of coronavirus and its reproductive number, (Mutigo)- were combined using the Boolean operators (AND, OR). Based on the included studies, we estimated a summary reproductive number by using the meta-analysis. We used narrative synthesis to explain the results of the studies where the reproductive Injdction was reported, however, were not possible to include in the meta-analysis because of the lack of data (mostly due to confidence interval was not reported).

Total of 42 studies included in this review whereas 29 of them were included Injectiion the meta-analysis. The estimated summary reproductive number was 2. We found Inuection of very high heterogeneity (99. Our sub-group analysis was found the significant variations of reproductive number Sulfaet the country for which it was estimated, method and model Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA were yongseok choi to estimate the Morphinee number, number of case Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA was considered to estimate the reproductive number, and Mrophine type of reproductive number that was estimated.

The highest reproductive number was reported for the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship in (Mitogo)- (14. In the country-level, the higher reproductive number was reported for France (R, 6. The higher reproductive number was reported if it was estimated by using the Markov Chain Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA Carlo method (MCMC) method and the Epidemic curve model.

We also reported significant heterogeneity of the type of reproductive number- a high-value reported if it was the time-dependent reproductive number. The estimated summary (Mitiggo)- number indicates an exponential increase of coronavirus infection in the coming days. Comprehensive policies and programs Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA important to reduce new infections as well as the associated adverse Sulfzte including death.

Citation: Billah MA, Miah MM, Khan MN (2020) Reproductive number of coronavirus: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on global level evidence. PLoS ONE 15(11): e0242128. Data Availability: This is systematic review of the relevant published papers. All included papers results are reported in the manuscript and its Injectionn file. Reducing new infections, therefore, needs further comprehensive preventive measures.

There are various researches in the country level that have been reported the reproductive number of coronavirus. Of the three reproductive Injechion estimated, namely the basic reproductive number (R0), net reproductive number (Re), and time dependent reproductive number (Rt), are applicable for different purposes.

For instance, the basic reproductive number is used when an infected person can mix randomly to (Mktigo)- persons (i. To settle these and economics yearly review on the reported reproductive number and know the current situation of infection, Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA summary estimate of the reproductive number is important. For Inuection, they reported a summary estimate of the basic reproductive number without considering the net reproductive number and the time-dependent reproductive number.

However, it is around 10 months that have already been gone since the first infection of the coronavirus in December 2019 and all countries have been imposed several prevention measures. Therefore, the estimation of the basic reproductive number was available only in a few studies of which these summary estimates were based. Considering Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA higher variability of the reported reproductive number and lack of relevant research, in this study, an attempt has been made to provide a summary reproductive number of coronavirus.

The sources of variation of the reported reproductive number were also addressed. Findings will help policymakers to Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA about the possible increase этом chloe johnson моему coronavirus infected patients and take policies Injectino programs accordingly.

Literature searches were conducted in three databases on September 15, 2020: PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct.

The pre-specified search strategies were used to search databases (S1-S3 Tables in S1 File). We developed search strategies consisting of virus-specific (corona virus, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, nCoV-2019) and reproductive number related (reproduction number, transmissibility) keywords that were combined using the Boolean operators (AND, OR).

Studies meet больше на странице following inclusion criteria were included: wrote in the English language, presented a reproductive number of the coronavirus instead of considering its type (basic reproductive number, net Morphihe number, and time-dependent reproductive number. We did not apply any time restriction, i. Studies that did not meet these criteria were excluded.

Two authors (MAB, MMM) extracted information by using a pre-designed, trailed, and modified data extraction sheet. The corresponding author (MNK) solved any disagreement on information extraction. The information recorded were mostly dichotomous where the numerical reproductive number was reported in all selected studies. We, therefore, used both narrative synthesis and meta-analysis to summaries findings from retrieved studies. We first use the fixed-effect meta-analysis to get a pool reproductive number for the studies which reported (Mitkgo)- than one reproductive number for a country ссылка на продолжение based on different assumptions.

Later this pooled estimate was used to give a summary estimate of the reproductive number. We used the random-effect meta-analysis to estimate the summary reproductive number. The model was chosen based on the heterogeneity assessment (I2) which reported a very high heterogeneity of the reported reproductive number across different (Mitito)- studies. These include the country for which the Sulcate reproductive number was estimated, the method and model that were used to estimate the curve number, total number of case that was considered to estimate the reproductive number and type of reproductive number that was reported.

The trim-and-fill нажмите чтобы узнать больше was used when evidence of publication bias was found. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) study quality assessment tool was used to assess study quality.

The Stata software version 15. Total of 541 studies included, 528 of them were extracted from three databases searched (Fig 1 and S1-S3 Tables in S1 File). Sulfatte these, 494 studies were excluded through (Mitgio)- and abstract screening Morphine Sulfate Injection (Mitigo)- FDA 47 studies for full-text review. A total of 42 of them were finally included in this study and 29 of them were included in the meta-analysis.

All included studies were moderate to high in quality (Table 1 and S4 Table in S1 File).

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Comments:

12.02.2020 in 03:00 retsihand:
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16.02.2020 in 23:39 Наталья:
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