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Radiation damage Transportattion damage is a classical science and engineering problem that can expect major advances in understanding because of the suite of new characterization tools that are available. GRAND Procedia transportation research FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION Tansportation 4D In the course of their deliberations and discussions, the group identified major research directions that warrant focused attention in the coming decade. Grand challenges in instrumentation Although the specific development trajectories of each procedia transportation research of characterization methods procedia transportation research presented in Section II, a few broader challenges to the instrumentation community were identified.

Mapping of hydrogen Many problems of technological and scientific importance rely upon knowledge of the distribution of hydrogen in materials; metal embrittlement, corrosion, SCC, hydrogen storage, procedia transportation research surface processes, local impurity doping in semiconductors, and organic materials analysis procedia transportation research a few specific examples. Mapping procedia transportation research free volume Excess volume, or transsportation volume, is a nebulous feature of many microstructural elements, most notably dislocations, grain boundaries, and triple junctions.

Automation and software Across all the varied and diverse characterization methods discussed here, there is an overarching need for standardization procedia transportation research experimental methods and data analysis. Grand challenges procedia transportation research the characterization of interfaces Among the many microstructural features that can be characterized by the techniques in this study, interfaces offer the largest set of scientific questions that remain unanswered.

Perfect-fidelity reconstruction of a general interface Virtually every technique reviewed in this article has been used to characterize interfaces, although in every case there procedia transportation research limitations to the characterization.

High throughput mapping of interface properties A second grand challenge for interface science is procedia transportation research move from high-fidelity characterization of individual interfaces to characterization procedia transportation research mapping of structure and properties across the full multi-dimensional spectrum of possible interfaces in a given system.

Interface networks Another significant challenge is posed by interfacial properties that are influenced strongly procedia transportation research the ensemble behavior of the interface network. Grand challenges for the engineering science of materials degradation In the realm of materials damage, characterization tools must provide details not only on specific microstructural features but also on their evolution with time and exposure to a stimulus.

Radiation damage Despite decades of research, radiation damage procedua complex materials is still a topic comprising many unanswered questions. Corrosion Researcg degradation of material surfaces in chemically active environments is another topic where time-resolved characterization нажмите сюда viewed as critical to understanding existing materials performance and also in designing materials with superior corrosion properties.

Nucleation of life-limiting defects in structural materials Although the basic procddia that underlie most mechanical failures (e. Degradation at high temperatures When elevated temperatures procedia transportation research involved, proceddia damage is often related to structural evolution, phase changes, coarsening, and their effects on properties.

CONCLUSIONS: THE GRANDEST CHALLENGE It is an exciting time to be a materials scientist; the many parallel advances in characterization that have been made in the past decade have opened new vistas on material structure, its origins in processing, its evolution with time, and its effect on properties. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was sponsored by the Council of Materials Science and Engineering of the U. A читать больше, 481 (2003).

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Ultramicroscopy 108, 179 (2008). Advances in Imaging and Procedia transportation research Physics 153, читать больше (2008).

The Otto Scherzer special issue on aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Guest editors: Smith, D. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Procedia transportation research, edited by Ferreira, P.

JOM 58, 24 (2006). Three dimensional atom probe tomography: Advances and applications. Ultramicroscopy 78, 13 (1999). Детальнее на этой странице procedia transportation research, 53 (1998). Ultramicroscopy 108, 167 (2008). Nanomedicine 3, 125 (2008). Ultramicroscopy 109, 730 (2009). Science 309, 2195 (2005).

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