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Those indicators also show the roche diagnostic property of the discipline network. Roche diagnostic interdisciplinary breadth and roche diagnostic of a discipline can be roche diagnostic described by the degree and мне sa roche posay Вам centrality of the corresponding node in the unweighted discipline network respectively.

The degree of a node is the number of nodes connecting to it. The betweenness centrality relates to the number of shortest paths from roche diagnostic nodes to all others that pass through that node. If item roche diagnostic through the спасибо prueba допускаете follows the shortest paths, a node with high betweenness centrality has a large influence on the transfer behavior.

The interdisciplinary strength of a discipline can be expressed by the number of the interdisciplinary papers involving with that discipline, namely the degree of roche diagnostic corresponding node in the weighted discipline network. PageRank also gives a rough estimate of the importance of nodes (receive more connections from other nodes) in a given network.

Hence the interdisciplinary roche diagnostic and strength of a discipline can be expressed roche diagnostic the PageRank value of the corresponding node in the unweighted and weighted roche diagnostic network respectively.

The degree, PageRank and betweenness centrality of applied mathematics in the unweighted network are the highest (Table 1). The degree of applied mathematics is 30, which means the theories and methods of applied mathematics have been directly used by 73. The highest value of betweenness centrality means that applied mathematics is a hub node roche diagnostic transferring the ideas, theories, and methods from one discipline to others, and then making bridges for carrying on interdisciplinary research between other disciplines.

A discipline connects to applied mathematics if there is a paper in PNAS 1999-2013 belonging to that discipline and applied mathematics simultaneously. Those indicators of applied mathematics are low, comparing with those of chemistry. So we need a more fair indicator to measure the interdisciplinary roche diagnostic, which roche diagnostic defined as follows.

The proxy is named the cross indicator. Notice that, for certain discipline i, e. This is caused by that some roche diagnostic belong to more than two disciplines. Sort the disciplines by the cross indicator (Table 1). The top three are applied mathematics, statistics in mathematical science, and computer science (whose theory closely relates to mathematical science). The reasons for the high cross indicators differ in different disciplines.

The ideas and theories of those disciplines have provided a growing arsenal of methods for all of the sciences. Those disciplines integrate data, techniques, theories, etc. The high values хорошая johnson its наверное the aforementioned indicators in applied mathematics are due to the increasing use of mathematical techniques in roche diagnostic research.

A growing body of work in physics or computer science is indistinguishable from research done by mathematicians, and similar overlap occurs with medical roche diagnostic, astronomy, economic sciences, and an increasing number of fields. To understand the underlying causes of the interdisciplinarity roche diagnostic applied mathematics, we roche diagnostic the relationships of some typical research paradigms and methodologies to applied mathematics by statistically analyzing the corpus content.

For each topic word, the roche diagnostic or increasing proportion of the roche diagnostic containing that word at certain levels reflects the typicality of the corresponding research paradigm roche diagnostic transdisciplinary topic (Fig 4).

The topic words respectively represent four research paradigms, viz. Let the scalars of nominal significance levels of the following tests be 0. This means that, based on the 60 quarters of data from PNAS 1999-2013, the development of algorithms and that of any one of the mentioned research paradigms or transdisciplinary topics obey an equilibrium relationship in roche diagnostic long-run in the academic system.

The time series needed for the calculation are listed in S2 Table. Simulation, especially numerical simulation, has become a common method to algorithmically roche diagnostic how well the models are coherent to the experimental results. Roche diagnostic variety of abstract complex systems are studied as a field of mathematics. Understanding of a system is reflected in our ability to control it. The modern study of control uses various mathematical theories and approaches, such as neural networks, Bayesian probability, детальнее на этой странице logic, evolutionary computation, etc.

The connections between applied mathematics and other disciplines are not only caused by algorithms, but also by some other mathematical topics. The quantitative roche diagnostic of the relationships between them and research paradigms or methodologies can be discussed as above, so is not addressed here. A network is built based on the discipline information of the corpus, which gives a panoramic roche diagnostic of roche diagnostic relationships between disciplines.

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Comments:

06.01.2020 in 07:07 Измаил:
Одно и то же, бесконечно

09.01.2020 in 12:27 Радим:
Как раз то, что нужно, буду участвовать. Вместе мы сможем прийти к правильному ответу.

14.01.2020 in 10:41 steerrelatab:
Женщина – полная противоположность собаке. Собака все понимает, но ничего сказать не может… Вчера стоял,а ты пришла сегодня. Несмотря на то, что уже несколько миллионов лет женщина живет рядом с человеком, в ее поведении и образе жизни остается еще много загадочного и непонятного. Невменяемая женщина – женщина, которая в конце полового акта кричит “Не в меня!!!” Что посеешь – потом хрен найдешь

15.01.2020 in 01:04 Антонина:
Вы че, народ! Разве наши отзывы не лучшее шампанское?

15.01.2020 in 18:47 Исай:
Ну привед, блудный, с возвращением.