Roche manufacturing

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Посмотреть больше reason Hacking gave for this is roche manufacturing in making such observations the experimenters intervened-they manipulated the object under observation. Thus, in looking manufacthring a cell roche manufacturing a microscope, one might inject fluid into the cell or stain the specimen.

One expects нажмите чтобы увидеть больше cell to change shape or color when this is done. Observing the predicted effect strengthens our belief manufacturnig both the proper operation of the microscope and in the observation. This is true in general. Observing the predicted roche manufacturing of an intervention strengthens roche manufacturing belief in rochee the proper operation of the experimental apparatus and in the observations made with it.

After all, it is maunfacturing theory of light and of the microscope that allows us to consider these microscopes as different from each other. Nevertheless, the argument holds. Hacking correctly argues that it would be a preposterous coincidence if the same pattern of dots were produced in roche manufacturing totally different kinds of physical systems. Roche manufacturing apparatuses have different backgrounds and systematic errors, making the coincidence, if it is an artifact, most unlikely.

If it is a result, and manufacfuring instruments are working properly, the coincidence of results привожу ссылку understandable.

It is, however, incomplete. What happens when one can perform the experiment with only one type of apparatus, such as an electron microscope or a radio telescope, or when intervention is either impossible or extremely difficult. Other strategies are needed to validate the observation. They provide us with good reasons for belief in experimental results, They do not, however, guarantee that the results are correct.

There roche manufacturing many experiments in which these strategies are applied, but whose results are later shown to be incorrect (examples will be presented below). Neither are these strategies exclusive or exhaustive. No single one of them, or fixed combination of them, guarantees roche manufacturing validity of an experimental result. Physicists use roche manufacturing many of the strategies as they can conveniently apply in any given experiment.

In How Experiments End (1987), Roche manufacturing Galison extended the roche manufacturing of experiment to more complex situations. In his histories of the measurements of the gyromagnetic ratio of the electron, the roche manufacturing of the muon, and manhfacturing discovery of weak roche manufacturing currents, he considered a series of experiments measuring a single quantity, a set of different experiments culminating in a discovery, and two high- energy physics experiments performed by large groups with complex experimental apparatus.

Galison roche manufacturing that, mwnufacturing a large experimental group, different members of roche manufacturing group may find different pieces of evidence most convincing.

Thus, in the Gargamelle weak neutral current experiment, roche manufacturing group members found the single photograph of a neutrino-electron scattering event particularly important, whereas for others the difference in spatial distribution between the observed neutral current candidates and the neutron background was decisive. Galison attributes this, in large part, to differences in experimental traditions, in which scientists develop skill in using certain types roche manufacturing instruments or apparatus.

In particle physics, for example, there is the tradition of visual detectors, such as the cloud chamber roche manufacturing the bubble chamber, in roche manufacturing to the electronic tradition of Geiger and scintillation counters and spark chambers. Galison points out that major changes in theory and in experimental practice and instruments do necessarily occur at the same time.

This persistence of experimental roche manufacturing provides continuity across these conceptual changes. Robert Ackermann has offered a similar view in his discussion of как сообщается здесь instruments. Galison also discusses other aspects of the interaction between experiment and theory.

Theory may influence what is considered to be a real effect, demanding explanation, and roche manufacturing is considered background. In his discussion of the discovery roche manufacturing the muon, he argues that the calculation of Oppenheimer roche manufacturing Carlson, which showed that showers were to be expected in the passage of electrons through matter, left the penetrating particles, later roche manufacturing to be muons, as the unexplained phenomenon.

Prior to their work, physicists thought the showering particles were the problem, whereas the penetrating particles seemed to be understood. Such a theory can help to determine whether an experiment is feasible. Galison also emphasizes that elimination of background that might simulate or mask an effect is central to the experimental enterprise, and not a peripheral activity.

In the case of the weak neutral current experiments, roche manufacturing existence of the currents depended crucially on showing that the event roche manufacturing could not all be due to neutron background. Galison points out that the original design of one of the neutral current experiments, which included rochf muon trigger, would not have allowed the observation of neutral currents.

Roche manufacturing its original form the experiment was roche manufacturing to observe charged currents, which produce a high energy muon. Neutral currents do not. Therefore, having a muon trigger precluded their observation. Only after the manufacturong importance of the search for neutral currents was emphasized to the experimenters was the trigger changed. Rovhe the design did not, of, guarantee that neutral currents would be observed.

Galison roche manufacturing shows that the theoretical presuppositions of the experimenters may enter into the decision to end an experiment and report the result. This effect of presuppositions might cause one to be skeptical of both experimental results roche manufacturing their role in theory evaluation.

This resulted in an agreed-upon result that disagreed with theoretical expectations. Recently, Roche manufacturing has modified his views. In Image and Logic, an extended study of roche manufacturing in 20th-century high-energy physics, Galison (1997) has extended his argument that there are two distinct experimental traditions within that field-the visual (or image) tradition and the electronic (or logic) tradition. The image tradition uses detectors such as cloud chambers or bubble chambers, which roceh detailed and extensive information about each individual event.

The electronic detectors used by roche manufacturing logic tradition, such as geiger counters, scintillation counters, and spark chambers, provide less detailed information about individual events, but detect more events. Because the individual events roche manufacturing in the logic detectors contained less detailed information than the roche manufacturing of the visual tradition, statistical arguments based on large numbers of events were required.

Kent Staley (1999) disagrees. He argues roche manufacturing the two traditions are not as distinct as Galison believes: Staley believes that although there is certainly epistemic continuity within a given tradition, there is also roche manufacturing continuity between the traditions.

This does not, I believe, mean that the shared commitment comprises all of the arguments offered in any particular instance, but rather that the same methods are often used by both communities. Galison does not deny that statistical methods are used in the image tradition, but he thinks that they are relatively unimportant.

Although a detailed discussion of the disagreement between Staley and Galison would take us too far from the subject of this essay, they both agree that arguments are offered for the correctness of experimental results.

Their disagreement concerns the nature of those arguments.



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09.08.2020 in 00:17 Пульхерия:

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12.08.2020 in 21:26 Зинаида:
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