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Figure 5 Schemes of the experimental design in photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy. Adapted with permission from Tian B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng LZ, Liu Z. Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. Moreover, these nanoparticles showed high tumor accumulation when intravenously injected into the tumor-bearing mice. The tumors were first irradiated with a 650-nm laser нажмите чтобы узнать больше PDT using MB and were subsequently exposed to an 808-nm laser that induced PTT by scopus author id. The in vivo results showed total ablation of tumor, indicating the pronounced synergistic effect of dual phototherapy (Figure 6).

Figure 6 In vivo cancer therapy in HeLa tumor-bearing mice. PDT only showed minimal effect on tumor growth, whereas PTT alone showed improved effect on tumor growth.

The mice with combined therapy showed no sign of tumor scopus author id and the burned skin was also healed (the arrow indicates scopus author id healed site). Compared to Scopus author id, RGO exhibited higher intrinsic thermal conductivity and NIR absorbance. Therefore, RGO is favorable for applications in PTT. Compared with PDT or Ссылка на продолжение alone, the combination of both resulted scopus author id a significant cytotoxicity.

This unique approach can effectively improve mild PTT (Figure 7). Figure 7 Irradiation-activated apoptosis. Notes: (A) Schematic illustration of the sequential irradiation-activated high-performance apoptosis. The efficacy of combined treatment is compared with the additive efficacy of independent PDT scopus author id PTT treatments using t-tests with all P-values lower than 0. Reprinted from A multi-synergistic platform for sequential irradiation-activated high-performance apoptotic cancer therapy.

Chen ZW, Li ZH, Wang JS, et scopus author id. The system generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen under 630-nm laser irradiation for PDT. Compared with PTT or PDT scopus author id, the combined treatment is shown to be a more efficient means of cancer therapy. Notes: Reprinted from Biomaterials, 34, Wang YH, Scopus author id HG, Liu DP, Song SY, Wang X, Zhang HJ.

Recently, Gollavelli and Ling36 reported a single light-induced photothermal and photodynamic reagent with dual-modal imaging capability. The MFG serves as an excellent luminescence image reagent limb girdle T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast reagent owing to its fluorescence and superparamagnetic properties.

Graphene-based nanosystems have shown great potential for PDT of cancer. However, biosafety of the nanomaterials must be taken into consideration. The toxicity and behavior of graphene-based materials in biological systems have been scopus author id investigated. Surface modification of graphene has been scopus author id to effectively decrease its in vivo toxicity. Toxicity of graphene also depends on the chemical structure, charge, size, number of layers, and defects.

Other factors include administration route, dose, time of exposure, as well as the cell types. Thus, more узнать больше здесь investigations need to be carried out to fully understand the biological effects and to address safety concerns before implementation of основываясь на этих данных applications of any graphene-based materials.

Graphene-based, mainly GO, have been extensively studied as an effective nanovehicle scopus author id both organic PSs and inorganic nanoparticles such as TiO2 and ZnO.

The unique physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials allow for efficient loading via both physical absorptions and chemical conjugations.

Various strategies have been developed for GO-based PS delivery systems including targeted, target-activatable, and photothermally enhanced PDT. Upon incorporation of PS into the GO nanovehicles, the stability, bioavailability, and photodynamic anticancer effects of PSs can be significantly improved, with distinctive therapeutic effects.

However, there are critical issues to be addressed before clinical scopus author id. In addition, these GO nanovehicles are generally in their pristine forms with highly dispersed particle sizes.

More studies are scopus author id to find out the correlations between the physicochemical characteristics or structural modifications of graphenes and their biological impact. Rational, увидеть больше graphenes that can satisfy clinical requirements comprise the current challenges in the development of versatile GO-based nanocarriers for medical diagnosis and therapy.

Wilson BC, Patterson MS. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy. Agostinis P, Berg K, Cengel KA, et al. Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update. CA Cancer J Clin. Brown SB, Brown EA, Walker I. The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment. Henderson BW, Dougherty TJ. How does photodynamic therapy work.



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