Solid state sciences journal

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Institutions are required to have routines that solid state sciences journal integrity and prevent misconduct. Institutions must also have procedures for handling solid state sciences journal and accusations of scientific misconduct. Universities, university colleges and other educational institutions have a special responsibility to ensure that students and others receive training in research ethics and scientific integrity.

Research material should be made available to other researchers for secondary analysis читать полностью further use.

Sharing of research data is often a prerequisite for building solid state sciences journal knowledge, comparing results and critically testing the work of others. Improved openness and quality assurance can be achieved by sharing data.

Therefore, the norm of transparency and data-sharing, particularly in large-scale registry research, should be balanced against other considerations and requirements of research ethics. Generally, those responsible for collecting material have the priority right to use it in analyses and in publications. Solid state sciences journal acquired with the aid of public funding must be made publicly available after a short period.

Supplier researchers and research institutions are obliged to report and consider possible conflicts of interest and of roles. All researchers are obliged to respect the requirements regarding their нажмите чтобы увидеть больше impartiality and that of others.

Partiality can make research less reliable and independent, for example by leading to biased publication or selective reporting. Researchers may not take part in processes that involve approving, funding or judging their own research or the consequences of that research.

Nor may researchers take part in evaluating measures that solid state sciences journal have been involved in developing or implementing, or which are the solid state sciences journal of their own research. Impartiality requirements are the responsibility not only of researchers, but also of research institutions. Research institutions should as a matter solid state sciences journal routine raise the question of impartiality and potential conflicts of interests in matters where this is relevant.

Institutions and the research community generally should strive for openness and discussion concerning impartiality. In other cases, it is not only the credibility of the research that is relevant, but also the requirement that the research should be objective. Research should be conducted in compliance with norms of research ethics, for example with regard to openness, fairness and (self-criticism, thereby contributing to research cultures that promote good research.

Research institutions must create conditions for research cultures that is conducive to good research. They must strive to maintain a culture based on constructive discourse and management of collegial disagreement. They should encourage well-balanced recruitment of researchers. Criticism must not узнать больше silenced by referring to obligations of loyalty or requirements of obedience. Research communities must maintain high methodological standards and encourage fair debate on the applications and limitations of various methods and analytical techniques.

It is a breach of ethical norms if researchers keep serious criticism of existing research to themselves, and do not solid state sciences journal it in relevant circles to ensure that problematics are considered from all angles. This is consistent with the scientific norm of systematic and organised scepticism. Relevant circles may extend to a broader public than the specialist community.

Most disciplines are characterised by competing schools of thought and disagreement on fundamental questions of scientific theory. Those responsible for the academic assessment of the work of others must therefore be willing to seriously consider arguments and ways of thinking that solid state sciences journal recognised in other research traditions than their own. Academic assessments solid state sciences journal be characterised by professional carefulness, fairness and openness.

Researchers frequently participate in evaluations for academic posts. In such contexts, the assessor must review their own impartiality and work solid state sciences journal and objectively.



15.01.2020 in 22:42 Нона:
Могу я у Вас спросить?

16.01.2020 in 10:43 vermyapel:
Очень полезная вещь, спасибо!!