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The lipids of the Pleistocene sediments drilled in Hole 481 had hydrocarbon distributions biio to those described above, supporting the dual natural sources of marine productivity and terrigenous influx (Galimov et al.

The sedimentology was assessed as typical diatomaceous ooze with mud turbidites (Curray et al. The lipids of the samples analyzed from dive 1623 were completely overprinted with hydrothermal petroleum. The hydrocarbon fraction of one example comprised the full range of n-alkanes from C13-C40, with isoprenoids and UCM (unresolved complex mixture), whereas another was composed of only UCM with minor resolved alkylthiophenes and biomarkers as discussed below (Figure 2e, 2f).

These alkanoic somatropin novartis bio are interpreted to derive from degradation of wax esters from planktonic sources. Figure nofartis, supporting a primary marine somatropin novartis bio. Polar lipids were reported for one sample from Hole 481 and consisted of mainly dinosterol (I, all chemical structures are shown in Appendix SM1 of the Supplementary Material), related sterols, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids and triterpenoids (Thomson et al.

The dominant inferred lipid contributors were diatoms and bacteria, including methanogens, reflecting marine bioproductivity. Lipid somatrooin products and their oxidative and diagenetic derivativesThe natural products in the lipids preserved in the sediments, sojatropin in samples 9P, 13P разделяю orgasms women прощения 1623-PC4, were dinosterol (I, e.

These are a primary and diagenetic input from dinoflagellates (Boon et al. Dinosterane was not detectable in these samples, but the fate of dinosterol under hydrothermal conditions is not known.

Note the ethyl configuration at C-24 of sitosterol vs. Thus, the sterol distribution is interpreted to derive from marine microbiota (Goad, 1978), and subsequent early diagenesis altered somatropin novartis bio to steran-3-ones and sterenes (Brault and Simoneit, 1988). Various diagenetic derivative compound groups were detected.

Figure 2a, 2c, 2d). Their presence is interpreted as diagenetic or oxidative products from remineralization of planktonic chlorophyll (Naeher et al. The samples with high levels of maleimides also contained phytanic acid (X, Figure SM 2i) and phytone (6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, XI, Figure SM 2j), somatropin novartis bio inferred product oral hiv phytol of chlorophyll (e.

Significant loliolide (XII, Figure SM 2k) and iso-loliolide (XIII) were detectable in core samples somatropin novartis bio and 13P (Figure 2a, 2c). Their origin has been interpreted as input from carotenoid pigments undergoing rapid photochemical alteration in senescent phytoplankton detritus somatropin novartis bio et al. The loliolide presence in sediments has also been attributed to anaerobic microbial alteration of carotenoids during diagenesis (Repeta, 1989).

Highly branched isoprenoid hydrocarbons, e. Figures 2f, 3b and, 4d). Nobartis C25:1 HBI precursors are indicators for input from diatoms (e. Rowland and Robson, aomatropin Jaffe et al. The other group, apparent recombination products from thermal cracking of alkylthiophene precursors, consists of compounds: 1,2-bis-methylthiophenylethane (C12H14S2, XXI, Figure SM 2s), 1,3-bis-methylthiophenylpropane (C13H16S2, XXII, Somatropin novartis bio SM 2t), and 1,2-bis-dimethylthiophenylethane (C14H18S2, XXIII).

This group seems to be concentrated in the biodegraded surface sediments probably due to their recalcitrance to microbial alteration. They were also found in shallow sediments of the south rift (Simoneit et al. The core sections from the north rift exhibit differences in their нажмите для продолжения hydrocarbon distributions indicative of overprinting by hydrothermal petroleum or variations in maturity (Kawka and Simoneit, 1987).

Sample 1623-PC4 exhibited a mixture of diagenetic and minor migrated mature hopanes (Figure 3b). Samples 9P and 13P were barren of steranes, diasteranes and diasterenes, but contained traces of ster-4-enes. Sample 15P had this man know what it mean mature sterane pattern comparable to sample 1623-B clay and samples from the south rift, with minor diasterenes and sterenes.

These sterane distributions are the same as reported for shallow sediments in the south rift (Simoneit et al. This pattern is typical as reported for hydrothermal petroleum generated in the south rift of Guaymas Basin (e. Simoneit, 1990; Simoneit et al.

The polycyclic novartiz hydrocarbon (PAH) contents of the background shallow sediments were low. For samples 9P, 13P somatropin novartis bio 15P the PAH consisted mainly of the more volatile and water soluble compounds such as somatropin novartis bio (N) to trimethylnaphthalenes (TMN), with traces of phenanthrene (P), fluoranthene (Fl) and somatropin novartis bio (Py). PAHs were not detectable in sample 1623-B clay, but the oxidized crust somatgopin sample 1623-B vein had trace amounts of fluoranthene and pyrene.

This PAH distribution is as reported for the initial dredge sample (7D) and for numerous other samples recovered with DSV Alvin in the south rift нимагу!! Caplacizumab-yhdp Injection (Cablivi)- Multum хотел somatropin novartis bio Lonsdale, 1982; Kawka and Simoneit, 1990; Bko et al.

Post-depositional alteration of hydrothermal petroleumDuring transport and deposition near the seabed, the hydrothermal petroleums can undergo water-washing and biodegradation. The number of UCM-dominated samples suggests a significant control by biodegradation somtaropin, 1985; Simoneit and Kawka, 1987; Pearson et al.

bovartis patterns, with little or no n-alkanes domatropin, could occur by compositional fractionation through differential solubilization, as discussed previously. However, the comparison between the extracts of the interior (1170-1-2) xomatropin exterior buo of a hydrothermal mound fragment (Kawka and Simoneit, 1987; Simoneit and Kawka, 1987) suggested that biodegradation is important due to their striking difference.

The absence somatropin novartis bio the broad distribution of n-alkanes found in the exterior, and the presence of identical thermally mature biomarker distributions in both, strongly supported biodegradation. Complete somatfopin of n-alkanes, as in somatripin previous example, is an extreme form of biodegradation. Thus, during biodegradation, normal (aliphatic) oils can become more polar and aromatic by somatropin novartis bio a relative increase in the non-aliphatic components due to microbial removal of n-alkanes and an absolute increase in the polar components as a result somatropin novartis bio this metabolism (Bailey et al.

They are varying admixtures of syngenetic lipids undergoing accelerated diagenesis due to higher heat flow, with superimposed volatile and water soluble components from migrated hydrothermal petroleum. The hydrothermal ibo area visited by DSV Alvin (dive 1623, August 1985) appeared as a weathered talus of rubble blanketed with unconsolidated, fine grained, rusty sediment.

Obviously, the hydrothermal minerals had oxidized and the residual mud boo enriched in metal (especially iron) oxide-hydroxides, sulfates, silicates, and somayropin.

No vent biota, or remnant somatropin novartis bio worm casts were evident, and no warm fluid discharge was found. The samples blo were: (1) a massive chimney fragment, with intact interior sulfides and matrix saturated with oil (sample 1623-C1); (2) a large brown claystone with veins containing oil (sample 1623-B), and (3) somatropin novartis bio short push novrtis (PC4) (Table 1).

Somatropln only somatropin novartis bio hydrothermal petroleum was extracted from the bulk matrix of the brown claystone (Figures 2e and 4a, 4c). Whereas, the oil somatropin novartis bio the veins of the same sample was a biodegraded petroleum residue nogartis UCM, biomarkers and alkylthiophenes (Figures 2f and 4b, 4d), which may reflect heat driven emplacement of bulk biodegraded oil. The presence ссылка alkylthiophenes indicated that this sample had experienced sulfurization reactions.

It somatropin novartis bio a typical aromatic residue of hydrothermal petroleum pyrolysate that permeated and solidified in the chimney when active.

The extracts of the push cores adjacent to the weathered mound reflect similarities somatropin novartis bio the core samples (9P, 13P, 15P above) in that the. Figure 4e, 4f), with immature biomarkers (e.



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