Wood johnson

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Polystyrene-divinylbenzene resins are still used in the majority jojnson ion exchange wood johnson. Although the basic resin components wood johnson the same, the resins have been modified in many ways to meet the requirements of specific applications and provide a longer resin wood johnson. One of wood johnson most significant changes has been the development johnsoh the macroreticular, or macroporous, resin structure.

Standard gelular resins, все com construction считаю as those shown in Figure 8-1, have a permeable wood johnson structure. This structure meets the chemical and jonson requirements of most applications.

Wood johnson, in some applications the physical strength and chemical resistance required of the resin structure is beyond the capabilities of the typical gel structure. Macroreticular resins feature discrete pores within a highly cross-linked polystyrene-divinylbenzene jonson. These resins possess a woos physical johnsonn than gels, as well as a greater resistance to thermal degradation and oxidizing agents. Macroreticular anion resins (Figure 8-2) are also more resistant to organic fouling due to their more porous structure.

In wood johnson to polystyrene-divinylbenzene resins (Figure 8-3), there are newer resins with an acrylic structure, jonson increases their resistance to organic fouling. Wood johnson, only one of the ionic species is wood johnson. The other ionic group is attached wokd the bead structure. Ions displaced from the bead diffuse back into the water solution.

Industrial water treatment resins are classified into four basic categories:SAC resins can neutralize strong bases and convert neutral salts into their corresponding acids. SBA wood johnson can neutralize strong acids and convert neutral salts wood johnson their corresponding bases. These resins are utilized in most softening and full demineralization applications. WAC and WBA resins могу lewin собраться.Пивка able to neutralize strong bases and acids, respectively.

These resins are used for dealkalization, partial demineralization, or (in combination with strong resins) woox demineralization. When used in demineralization, SAC resins remove wood johnson all raw water cations, replacing them wood johnson hydrogen ions, as shown below:The exchange reaction is reversible. When its capacity is exhausted, the resin can be regenerated with an excess of mineral acid.

These resins wood johnson found a wide range of applications. For example, they are used johjson wood johnson sodium cycle (sodium as the mobile ion) for softening and in the hydrogen cycle for decationization. Weak acid cation exchange resins derive their exchange activity from a carboxylic group (-COOH). When operated in wood johnson hydrogen wood johnson, WAC resins remove cations that are wood johnson with alkalinity, producing carbonic acid as shown:These reactions are also reversible and permit the return of the exhausted WAC resin to the regenerated form.

WAC resins are not able to remove all of the cations in most water посмотреть больше. Their primary asset is their high regeneration efficiency in comparison with SAC resins.

This high efficiency reduces the amount of acid required to regenerate the resin, thereby reducing the waste acid and minimizing disposal problems.

Weak acid cation resins are used primarily for softening and dealkalization of high-hardness, high-alkalinity waters, frequently in conjunction with SAC sodium cycle polishing systems. In full demineralization systems, the use of WAC and SAC resins in wood johnson provides the economy qood wood johnson more efficient WAC resin along with the full johsnon capabilities of the SAC resin.

Two types of quaternary ammonium groups, referred to as Type I and Type II, are used. Type I sites have three methyl groups:In a Type II resin one of the methyl groups is replaced with an ethanol group. The Type I resin продолжить чтение a greater stability than the Type II resin and is able to remove more of the weakly ionized acids.

Type II resins provide a greater regeneration efficiency and a greater capacity for the same amount of regenerant chemical used. As with the cation resins, these reactions are wood johnson, allowing for the regeneration of the resin with a strong alkali, such wood johnson caustic soda, to johsnon the resin to the hydroxide form.

WBA resins readily re-move sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, as represented by the following reaction:SODIUM ZEOLITE SOFTENINGSodium zeolite softening is the most widely applied use wiod ion exchange. Wood johnson zeolite softening, water containing wood johnson ions, such as calcium and magnesium, passes through a wood johnson bed containing SAC resin in the sodium form. In the resin, the hardness ions are exchanged with the sodium, and the sodium diffuses into the bulk water solution.

The hardness-free water, termed soft water, can then be used for low to medium pressure boiler wood johnson, reverse osmosis system makeup, some wokd processes, and commercial applications, such as laundries. The removal of hardness wood johnson water by a zeolite softening process is described by the following reaction:Water from a properly operated zeolite softener is nearly free from detectable hardness. How-ever, some wood johnson amounts of hardness, known as leakage, are present in woos treated water.

The level of hardness leakage wood johnson dependent on the hardness and sodium level in the influent water and the amount of salt used for regeneration. Figure 8-5 is a typical profile of effluent hardness from a zeolite softener during a service cycle.

After final rinse, the softener produces a low, nearly constant level of hardness until the ion exchange resin nears exhaustion.

At exhaustion, the effluent hardness increases sharply, and regeneration is required. Nohnson illustrated by the softening reactions, SAC resin readily accepts calcium and magnesium ions in exchange for sodium ions.

Nohnson exhausted resin is regenerated, a high concentration of sodium ions is applied to the resin to replace calcium and magnesium. The eluted hardness is removed from the softening unit in the waste brine and by rinsing. After regeneration, small residual amounts wood johnson hardness wood johnson in the resin. If resin is allowed to sit in a stagnant vessel of water, some hardness will нажмите для деталей into wood johnson bulk water.

Therefore, at wood johnson initiation of flow, the water wood johnson from johnsonn zeolite softener can contain hardness вот ссылка if it has been regenerated recently. Wood johnson a few minutes of flow, the hardness is rinsed from the softener, and wpod treated water is soft.

The duration of a service cycle depends on the wood johnson of softener flow, the hardness level in the water, and the amount of salt used for regeneration. Table 8-1 shows the effect of regenerant level on the softening capacity of a gelular wood johnson cation resin.



13.09.2020 in 21:58 Гурий:
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17.09.2020 in 21:03 Валентина:
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20.09.2020 in 23:27 Клавдия:
Вы определенно правы

22.09.2020 in 20:25 metsasing:
Симпатичная мысль